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CS101 Midterm Solved Past Papers

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Operating Systems: Deadlock

Another difficulty that can happen during resource allocation is deadlock, the situation in which two or more processes are blocked from making progress because each is waiting for a resource that is allocated to another. For example, one process may have contact to the computer’s printer but be waiting for access to the computer’s CD player, while a new process has access to the CD player but is waiting for the printer.

Another example occurs in systems where processes are allowed to create new processes (an action called forking in the UNIX vernacular) to perform side tasks. Another example occurs in systems where processes are allowed to create new processes (an action called forking in the UNIX vernacular) to perform side tasks. must create an extra process before it can complete its duty, then no process can carry on.

 Such conditions, as in other settings can severely corrupt a system’s performance examination of deadlock has exposed that it cannot occur unless all three of the following conditions are satisfied:

  • There is opposition to unshareable resources.
  • Resources are requested on an incomplete basis; that is, after receiving some resources, a process will come back later to request others.
  • Once a resource has been allocated, it cannot be claimed as a protest.

 The point of isolating these conditions is that the blocking problem can be eliminated by attacking one of the three. Techniques that attack the third condition fall into the category known as blockage detection and correction schemes.

 In these cases, the occurrence of a blockage is considered so remote that no effort is made to avoid the problem. Instead, the approach is to detect it if it occurs and then correct it by forcibly reclaiming some of the allocated resources.

Our full process table example could fall into this class. If a deadlock occurs due to a full table, the operating system routines (or perhaps a human administrator using his or her powers as “superuser”) can remove (the technical term is killing) some of the processes. This frees up space in the process table, breaking the deadlock and allowing the remaining processes to continue operating.

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